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When should I use a citation?

Posted by Jose Perez on
When should I use a citation?

A citation is a reference parts of your text to a published or unpublished source. It is the way to tell your readers that some parts of your text is not original and has been outsourced from someone’s work. It helps the reader to distinguish your own ideas from the outsourced ideas.

Many people who are new to writing have difficulty in citing, they don’t know how what and where to cite. Here is all you need to know about the citation.

Citation has several important purposes and among them is to uphold intellectual honesty to avoid plagiarism, to give the reader the necessary information (the title of the work, information about the author, date the copy was published and the exact page number ) needed to find the information.

It keeps you off from taking the consequences of someone else’s bad work, strengthens your work by lending external support to your ideas and also shows that the writer conducted extensive research.

When do you need to cite

Whenever you borrow ideas whether from published or unpublished you need to cite their sources. Citing doesn’t make your work look less original, it shows you did research on the topic. Here are the situations that always require citation.

1. When you use quotes

When writing someone’s quote or powerful words you need to cite to show whose quote it is. Failure to quote the reader will take that quote as your own.

2. Summarizing or paraphrasing

When you use an idea that has been expressed by someone else to support your own ideas. Paraphrasing and summarizing are writing someone’s idea in your own words without changing the meaning. You translate their ideas into your own words to support your idea.

3. When giving data that is unfamiliar to the reader

Readers are not familiar with statistical data and therefore whenever we use statistical data in our writings we should cite the sources. These give the reader room to confirm the given data is correct.

4. Not only books and articles

There are many sources of information but many writers only cite books and articles but this shouldn’t be the case. Cite any information that is not your original. Information from websites, TV shows, and interviews should also be cited.

5. There is no need to site what is known as common knowledge. Something that is known by everyone such as the number of hours in a day shouldn’t be cited.

How to cite

Now that you know why and when to cite you might be asking yourself how is citation done. Citations can be done either manually or automatically using referencing generators such as the free harvard referencing generator. There are many ways you can cite outsourced information depending on your professor’s preference.

1. In text

The source author is included in the body of the text.


The cited ideas and quotes are noted with a number at the end of the document.


The cited ideas and quotes are noted at the end of each page.

Your professor can also be specific in which format to use either the APA (American Psychological Association) style and format, MLA (Modern Language Association) style and format or the CHICAGO manual of style.


How Many Hours Do Freelancers Work?

Posted by Jose Perez on

Working as a freelancer

In today’s business life, working as a freelancer seems quite attractive for most employees. Nowadays, many employees prefer having freelancer work in different projects except for the work they are doing and the workplace they are connected to.

Nowadays, employees working in a business place can also carry out different projects as freelancers. So, working as a freelancer does not mean that you cannot have a full day job. For this reason, freelance working also appeals to those people who wish to create another income source apart from their full-time job.

What are the advantages of working as a freelancer?

Freelancers work is considered to be the most convenient way of working. Particularly, it is one of the important reasons for the employee to form his / her own working order. The freelance employee can plan working hours according to when they are most effective and efficient.

Additionally, since the freelancers work individually, they are not exposed to negative situations such as stress and pressure, which have become one of the most important problems of employees working in a crowded office environment.

One of the most important advantages of freelance work is the possibility to work in a more comfortable environment; in the home environment or outside, compared to the office. In particular, graphic designers, event organizers, translators, and software developers commonly prefer working as a freelancer.

Another one of the most appealing factors of working as a freelancer is having the ability to determine the working schedules depending on the freelancer’s expectations. Freelancers do not have a monthly salary but instead, their income is defined over their working hours. Since the employee has the freedom to take part in the project he/she wants, he/she has the chance of choosing the jobs which will be most efficient among the various options.

How many hours do freelancers work?

When you start working as a freelancer, you may ask the question of “how many hours should I work as a freelancer?” It is totally up to the expectations and living conditions of the person who wants to work as a freelancer. So there is no certain answer to this question.

Since you have the chance of scheduling your working hours as a freelancer, you should calculate how much income you need at the first stage. After determining the amount of income you wish to get, you need to set the working time and act as if you’re not working remotely so you can get the jobs you need to finish.

Imagine you’re working on a project, a phone call from your friend. You have to finish the job, but you want to answer the phone. Or, a list of things to do on a daily basis. For this reason, you should identify one or two key elements for the rest of the day and try to concentrate on these topics.

During this process, especially when doing creative things that require maximum concentration, do not let anything stop you for 1 hour or longer, and try to get your full attention.

Take care to adopt strategic thinking as if you were working in the office. It is also important that you do not check email during this time. Don’t look at your inbox for at least 1 hour, and prepare an auto-reply message that informs your colleagues that you will be unavailable during this time.

Creating some time for your beloved ones

Be clear about what time you will be working and when you will have free time for your family and your friends. In this way, it will be less likely you are to be disturbed during working hours. For example, if you’re at home with your partner, you may say “I’ll work from 08:00 to 17:00 today. I’d like to sit down for lunch and talk a little”.

Working in comfort is important

Working in a place where you can feel comfortable, and if possible, keeping the door of your room closed will prevent you from getting distracted from external factors. If you have other plans, such as taking children out of school during the day and having a dry cleaning, set certain time zones to get them done.


Common problems freelance writers seem to face most often

Posted by Jose Perez on

Freelance writing is becoming one of the most popular ways for individuals with good writing skills worldwide to supplement their income for a number of reasons. They can conveniently write from the comfort of their home, even if they live in a small town or other remote location, while working for their clients anywhere in the world. They can also choose their own working hours, depending on their convenience, take up as much or as little work as they choose, depending on their other work.

However, there are many problems which freelance writers are facing, which should be considered before making freelance writing their main income source.

Getting writing work

One of the biggest problems faced by most writers remains getting sufficient writing work. Many writers are spending a large part of their time, searching for suitable writing work. They usually have to spend a lot of their time, generating leads and orders, searching classified websites, forums and other places, where content buyers are posting their requirement for writers.

After finding leads, they also have to spend their time communicating with the content buyer, to get detailed information about their requirement, payment terms and other terms and conditions. Usually. the conversion rate is fairly low, so writers are spending a lot of their time trying to get orders.

Ensuring that customers pay

Another major problem faced by many writers is ensuring that customers pay as promised. Most writers are paid only after the work which they submit is approved by their customers. There are many customers who do not value the relationship with the writer and are always looking for flimsy excuses for refusing to pay. In some cases, they will claim that the work was not acceptable to the end customer, or that the quality was not satisfactory. Writing styles will differ, and some customers may not like the writing style of a particular writer.

Time management.

Writing is a very time-consuming activity and even fast writers with a good writing speed, can find that they are short of time, if they doing a lot of writing work. Unlike other tasks which can be largely automated, the writer has to spend a lot of time in front of his or her computer, writing the content required. They often also have to spend a lot of time communicating with their customer, to understand the customer requirement.

Additionally finding leads, generating orders, keeping records of work done, payment due, following up with the customer for payment can also take up a lot of time.

Dealing with competition, defamation and low rates

In some countries, there is a lot of competition for the limited amount of writing work available, due to which some writers are forced to work at a very low rate. The hourly rate at which the writers are paid is often far lower than the local rates for doing physical unskilled labor, which is humiliating and unfair for the writer, who may be a highly skilled and experienced professional. Often the writers leads and orders are stolen by hackers, well-connected officials and diverted to their associates, wasting the time of the writer.